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    Rabu, 14 Desember 2016

    [Zoology] Description of three new species of the tropical Asian jumping spider genus Onomastus Simon, 1900 from high altitude cloud forests of Sri Lanka (Araneae: Salticidae)

    Abstract. Spiders of the tropical Asian jumping spider genus Onomastus Simon, 1900 are small to medium-sized, delicate, translucent, commonly found inhabitants of Asian evergreen forest foliage. In this paper, three new species of the genus, O. jamestaylori sp. nov. (♂♀), O. corbetensis sp. nov. (♂♀) and O. maskeliya sp. nov. (♂♀) are described from Sri Lanka. The three new species are added to the matrix of a previous study to assess their phylogenetic position. The resulting cladistic analysis, based on 35 morphological characters from 18 taxa (13 Onomastus species and 5 outgroups) supports the monophyly of the genus. Additionally, a monophyletic, well-supported South Asian clade (India, Sri Lanka), which is restricted to the Sri Lanka-Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, is recovered in most analysis. The three newly described species might be endangered due to their small population size and restricted distribution in high altitude cloud forest.

    Key words: Phylogeny, endemics, synapomorphies, monophyly, parsimony, India, mountaintops

    Onomastus jamestaylori sp. nov.

    Description. Male holotype: yellowish green in life (Figs 1A–B). Lateral sides of prosoma bordered in dark green (Figs 1A–B). Specimens preserved in ethanol, light yellow. Chelicerae yellowish green with 3 promarginal and 7 retromarginal teeth. Labium yellowish green, as wide as long. Scutiform sternum with vague margins. Ocular region densely clothed with glossy white hairs (Figs 1A–B). All eyes black, except for the greenish yellow anterior medians, placed on low, black tubercles. Eye field broader anteriorly than posteriorly, occupying nearly half of the prosoma. PMEs much smaller, positioned on black tubercles. Median ocular quadrangle wider than long. Prosoma moderately high, rounded, slightly longer than wide. Posterior prosoma slopes gradually, rounded, without any truncation. Abdomen: oval, longer and narrower than prosoma, tapering toward posterior end. Dorsum yellowish green with pairs of dark green spots on the lateral sides (Figs 1A–B). Venter yellowish green without any markings. Spinnerets yellowish green. Legs: front legs greenish brown, somewhat darker than others, femur I and patella I with dark black markings (Fig. 1A), other legs yellowish green. Male palp: greenish brown with reddish brown palpal tibia; cymbium and bulbus large. Cymbium with distal finger-like extension. Highly sclerotized median apophysis, curved to a semi-circular arch, ending in broad, weakly bifurcated terminal structure with serrated tips (Figs 2A–B, Figs 3A–E). Retrolateral patellar apophysis broad, tip blunt (Figs 2A–B, 3B). Embolus originates from alveolar cavity, moderately long, thread-like. Conductor tapering (Figs 2A–B, 3A, B, D), lying between median apophysis and tegulum, with heavily sclerotized embolic guide, terminates in a broad, oval, spur, armed with two hooks (Figs 2A, 3A, C, D). Mesal branch of MA supports spur and embolic guide. TA1 long and fingerlike, TA3 prominent, broad, short, clearly visible. Measurements: TL 2.85, PL 1.30, PW at PLEs 1.05, AL 1.60, AW 0.75. Eye field: Diameter of AME 0.34, PLE 0.12, ALE 0.20, PME 0.01, PME–PME 0.62, PLE–PLE 0.46, ALE–PME 0.09, ALE–PLE 0.31. Leg I: Tr 0.10, Fm 1.36, Pt 0.37, Tb 1.24, Mt 0.84, Ta 0.40; Leg II: Tr 0.10, Fm 1.24, Pt 0.31, Tb 1.24, Mt 0.96, Ta 0.37; Leg III: Tr 0.10, Fm 1.30, Pt 0.34, Tb 1.18, Mt 1.27, Ta 0.34; Leg IV: Tr 0.10, Fm 1.33, Pt 0.31, Tb 1.27, Mt 1.40, Ta 0.34.

    Female paratype: As in males, except: eye field occupying nearly one third of prosoma, lateral sides of prosoma without dark green markings, abdomen broader, prominent pairs of dark green spots in the anterior, tibiae of all legs with black patches and tibia I with larger, prominent patches (Figs 1C–D). Epigyne: relatively less sclerotized. Large atrial rim present (Figs 2C–D). Copulatory openings clearly visible, situated anterolaterally to the bean-shaped spermathecae. Spermathecae appear to be fused. Fertilization ducts lanceolate, long, slender, originating from middle of postero-dorsal wall of receptacles. Measurements: TL 3.75, PL 1.75, PW at PLEs 0.95, AL 1.85, AW 0.95. Eye field: Diameter of AME 0.34, PLE 0.09, ALE 0.22, PME 0.02, PME–PME 0.59, PLE–PLE 0.47, ALE–PME 0.12, ALE–PLE 0.34. Leg I: Tr 0.12, Fm 1.24, Pt 0.40, Tb 1.18, Mt 0.76, Ta 0.43; Leg II: Tr 0.09, Fm 1.27, Pt 0.34, Tb 1.05, Mt 0.84, Ta 0.34; Leg III: Tr 0.16, Fm 1.27, Pt 0.31, Tb 1.09, Mt 0.81, Ta 0.34; Leg IV: Tr 0.12, Fm 1.36, Pt 0.34, Tb 1.27, Mt 1.36, Ta 0.56.





    Onomastus corbetensis sp. nov.

    Male holotype: pale green in life; ethanol preserved specimens light yellow. Chelicerae pale green with 3 promarginal, 7 retromarginal teeth. Pale green labium, as wide as long. Scutiform sternum with vague margins. Ocular region densely covered with glossy white hairs. All eyes black, except for the greenish yellow anterior medians, placed on low, black tubercles (Figs 4A–B). Eye field broader anteriorly than posteriorly, occupying nearly half of the prosoma. PMEs much smaller positioned on black tubercles. Median ocular quadrangle wider than long. Prosoma moderately high, rounded, slightly longer than wide. Posterior prosoma slopes gradually, rounded, without any truncation. Abdomen: elongate, ovoid, longer and narrower than prosoma, tapering toward posterior end. Dorsum pale green with dull green blotches on the lateral sides (Figs 4A–B). Venter pale green, no markings, spinnerets pale green. Legs: pale green without any markings. Male palp: pale green palp with faint brown palpal tibia, cymbium and bulbus. Cymbium with distal finger-like extension. Highly sclerotized, branched median apophysis. Pleated prolateral branch of MA with hook-shaped tip, retrolateral branch strongly curved, end in a faintly serrated tip (Figs 5A, 6B, D). Retrolateral patellar apophysis much broader tapered with rounded tip (Figs 5A–B, 6B–C). Filamentous, medium sized embolus originating from alveolar cavity. Conductor tapering (Figs 5A–B, 6B–D), lying between median apophysis and tegulum, heavily sclerotized embolic guide, terminus shape of spur with two pointed hooks (as in Figs 5A, 6B, D, E). Mesal branch of MA supports spur and embolic guide. TA1 long and finger-like, TA3 short, broad. Measurements: TL 2.80, PL 1.50, PW at PLEs 0.95, AL 1.40, AW 0.80. Eye field: Diameter of AME 0.34, PLE 0.12, ALE 0.19, PME 0.02, PME–PME 0.59, PLE–PLE 0.46, ALE–PME 0.12, ALE–PLE 0.31. Leg I: Tr 0.10, Fm 1.30, Pt 0.40, Tb 1.27, Mt 0.84, Ta 0.40; Leg II: Tr 0.12, Fm 1.27, Pt 0.37, Tb 1.24, Mt 0.99, Ta 0.34; Leg III: Tr 0.09, Fm 1.27, Pt 0.34, Tb 1.21, Mt 1.27, Ta 0.31; Leg IV: Tr 0.12, Fm 1.43, Pt 0.34, Tb 1.27, Mt 1.43, Ta 0.31.  

    Female paratype: As in male, except: yellowish green prosoma, eye field occupying nearly one third of prosoma, prominent black marking in the middle of eye field, broad abdomen with prominent dark green markings (Figs 4C–D). Epigyne: very sclerotized. Anterior epigynal border with broad, sclerotized hood-like structure. Atrial rim present, copulatory openings directly open into spermathecae, spermathecae large, somewhat rounded, small indentation mid-laterally, sclerotized thick walls (Figs 5C–D). Fertilization ducts lanceolate, long, slender, originating from middle of postero-dorsal wall of receptacles. Measurements: TL 3.65, PL 1.35, PW at PLEs 0.90, AL 2.20, AW 1.10. Eye field: Diameter of AME 0.37, PLE 0.09, ALE 0.12, PME 0.02, PME–PME 0.62, PLE–PLE 0.67, ALE–PME 0.12, ALE–PLE 0.31. Leg I: Tr 0.16, Fm 1.55, Pt 0.43, Tb 1.21, Mt 0.81, Ta 0.40; Leg II: Tr 0.10, Fm 1.24, Pt 0.31, Tb 1.05, Mt 0.81, Ta 0.31; Leg III: Tr 0.16, Fm 1.30, Pt 0.31, Tb 1.05, Mt 0.81, Ta 0.31; Leg IV: Tr 0.12, Fm 1.33, Pt 0.34, Tb 1.27, Mt 1.33, Ta 0.53





    Onomastus maskeliya sp. nov

    Male holotype: yellowish green carapace, pale green color laterals in live spiders (Figs 7A–B). Spiders preserved in ethanol faded yellow in color. Pale green chelicerae, fawn color tip, 3 promarginal and 7 retromarginal teeth. Labium yellowish green, wider than long. Scutiform sternum with vague margins. Ocular region sparsely clothed with white hairs. All eyes black in color, placed on low tubercles, except for greenish yellow, anterior medians. Eye field with prominent black patches in the center (Figs 7A–B), broader anteriorly than posteriorly, occupying about half of the prosoma. PMEs much smaller, positioned on black tubercles. Median ocular quadrangle wider than long. Prosoma moderately high, rounded, longer than wide. Posterior prosoma slopes gradually rounded, without truncation. Abdomen: elongate, ovoid, longer and narrower than prosoma, tapering toward posterior end. Dorsum yellowish green, lateral with dark green characteristic pattern (Figs 7A–B). Venter yellowish green, no markings. Spinnerets yellowish green. Legs: pale green without any markings. Male palp: pale green with brown palpal tibia; cymbium and bulbus large, with distal finger-like extension. Median apophysis well sclerotized, no branches, tip rounded (Figs 8A, 9B, D, E). Retrolateral patellar apophysis broad, tip blunt (Figs 8A–B, 9A–C). Embolus originates from the alveolar cavity, moderately long, thread-like. Conductor filiform, lying between median apophysis and tegulum, with heavily sclerotized embolic guide that terminates in a comparably larger and broader hook-shape of spur (Figs 8A, 9A–E). Spur and embolic guide supported by mesal branch of MA. TA1, long, finger-like, TA3 prominent, broad short. Measurements: TL 2.85, PL 1.30, PW at PLEs 1.05, AL 1.40, AW 0.70. Eye field: Diameter of AME 0.37, PLE 0.10, ALE 0.22, PME 0.01, PME–PME 0.62, PLE–PLE 0.49, ALE–PME 0.09, ALE–PLE 0.31. Leg I: Tr 0.12, Fm 1.08, Pt 0.34, Tb 1.30, Mt 0.65, Ta 0.46; Leg II: Tr 0.12, Fm 1.15, Pt 0.31, Tb 1.27, Mt 0.77, Ta 0.40; Leg III: Tr 0.12, Fm 1.21, Pt 0.37, Tb 1.18, Mt 1.33, Ta 0.56; Leg IV: Tr 0.15, Fm 1.21, Pt 0.34, Tb 1.36, Mt 0.99, Ta 0.56.

    Female paratype: As in male, except: yellowish green prosoma, eye field occupying nearly one third of the prosoma, abdomen yellowish, broader, with peculiar dark green blotches (Figs 7C–D). Epigyne: broad, well sclerotized. Large atrial rim present (Figs 8C–D). Copulatory openings seem to open directly into spermathecae. Spermathecae large, inverted pear-shaped, with heavily sclerotized thick wall (Figs 8C–D). Spermathecae appear to be fused. Fertilization ducts lanceolate, moderately long, slender, originating from middle of postero-dorsal wall of receptacles (Fig. 8D). Measurements: TL 3.95, PL 1.40, PW at PLEs 0.95, AL 1.80, AW 1.40. Eye field: Diameter of AME 0.37, PLE 0.09, ALE 0.22, PME 0.02, PME–PME 0.62, PLE–PLE 0.47, ALE–PME 0.09, ALE–PLE 0.31. Leg I: Tr 0.16, Fm 1.02, Pt 0.46, Tb 1.30, Mt 1.12, Ta 0.46; Leg II: Tr 0.12, Fm 1.24, Pt 0.40, Tb 1.27, Mt 0.93, Ta 0.43; Leg III: Tr 0.16, Fm 1.12, Pt 0.34, Tb 1.24, Mt 0.87, Ta 0.40; Leg IV: Tr 0.16, Fm 1.58, Pt 0.34, Tb 1.30, Mt 1.55, Ta 0.50.

    Reference:
    SURESH P. BENJAMIN & NILANI KANESHARATNAM. 2016. Description of three new species of the tropical Asian jumping spider genus Onomastus Simon, 1900 from high altitude cloud forests of Sri Lanka (Araneae: Salticidae). Zootaxa 4205 (5): 431–453. DOI: http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4205.5.2

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