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    Senin, 05 Desember 2016

    [Zoology] Morphological Variations and New Species Description of Genus Rousettus Bat from Gunung Duasudara Sanctuary, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Abstract: Bats belongs to Pteropodidae Family that spreaded evenly in Indonesia. Genus Rousettus have their morphological variances among its own species based on characteristics on each species. Among them there is fruit-feeding bats of from genus Rousettus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) that have many variances of morphology among its own species. This study was aimed to identify the morphological variations and its sex type influence of genus Rousettus bats from Gunung Duasudara Sanctuary, North Sulawesi. The locations were consisted 7 types of major vegetations at altitude range from 0 to 1351 m above sea level (asl). All habitat types were observed using Mist-net method at 1 and 3 m above the ground. There were found 452 individuals, including R. amplexicaudatus (224), R. celebensis (219) and R. tangkokoensis n. sp. (9). Nine individuals of Rousettus tangkokoensis n. sp. were newly found in lowland forest and coastal forest. These newly-found species were different from other Rousettus. There was discovered that sex type had influenced the skull and external body characters on R. amplexicaudatus, R. tangkokoensis n. sp. R. celebensis. However, most of other characters were statistically not-significant that indicated there was not any sexual dimorphism. According to the Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), these morphological groups possess different specification. Therefore, the three species of genus Rousettus have statistically variation of skull and external body characters one to another. 

    Keywords: North Sulawesi, Gunung Duasudara Sanctuary, Rousettus







    Description
    The color of outer appearance of R. tangkokoensis n. sp. was blackish orange shoulder, while R. amplexicaudatus was greyish brown to brown and R. celebensis was brown to yellowish brown. The color of chest to belly of R. tangkokoensis n. sp. was slightly bright orange, while R. amplexicaudatus was slightly bright grey brown and R. celebensis was slightly yelowish brown. The top head of R. tangkokoensis n. sp. was colored slightly dark orange, while R. amplexicaudatus was slightly dark grey brown and R. celebensis was slightly yellowish brown. The neck of R. tangkokoensis n. sp. was colored dark orange, while R. amplexicaudatus was grey brown with yellow hair bundle on both sides of the neck and R. celebensis was dark orange.

    The pelage of R. tangkokoensis n. sp. and R. amplexicaudatus was similar since it did not possessing dense pelage up to around the thigh, while R. celebensis had dense pelage around the thigh. Next similarity between R. tangkokoensis n. sp., R. amplexicaudatus and R. celebensis is they had hairy wings attaching on the back side, not on the their shoulder sides (Fig. 4).

    R. tangkokoensis n. sp. had bigger and smaller skull characters than those in R. amplexicaudatus and R. celebensis. The former is POW (8.99 mm; 8.60-9.70 mm); the latter is GSL (34.67 mm; 30.30-37 mm). The other characters are ZB (20.79 mm; 18.00-24.40 mm), LIW (7.18 mm; 6.70-8.30 mm), BCW (14.15 mm; 13.70-14.70 mm), BL (2.60 mm; 2.40-2.80 mm), MSF (4.54 mm; 4.10-5.00 mm), PL (16.34 mm; 14.60-17.60 mm), CBL (33.11 mm; 28.00-36.50 mm), CCL (31.84 mm; 27.50-34.90 mm), C1M3 (11.27 mm; 9.30-12.60 mm), C1C1 (6.12 mm; 5.50-7.30 mm), M3M3 (9.13 mm; 8.80-9.80 mm), DL (25.72 mm; 23.00-28.30 mm), RAP width (10.38 mm; 9.50-11.80 mm), C1M3 (12.33 mm; 10.10-14.90 mm), C1C1 (3.79 mm; 3.50-4.20 mm) and M3M3 (8.84 mm; 8.20-9.50 mm).

    The external body characters of R. tangkokoensis n. sp., (FA, HF, EAR and TAIL) were bigger than those of R. amplexicaudatus and R. celebensis. Furthermore, SV distance of R. tangkokoensis n. sp. is also bigger than that of R. celebensis. TIB of R. tangkokoensis n. sp. is bigger than R. amplexicaudatus. Otherwise, the FL of R. tangkokoensis n. sp. is smaller than R. amplexicaudatus. Overall, R. tangkokoensis n. sp. had small-sized characters, except for POW, FA, HF and EAR, which are bigger than those of R. amplexicaudatus and R. celebensis.

    Beside differences among species above, Suyanto (2001) stated that these were only based on the size lower arm wing and the presence or absence of wing attaching on the middle of shoulder. In both characters, R. tangkokoensis n. sp. is consistent with typical characteristics of Rousettus. Under this reason, the species is classified in a member of Rousettus.

    Comparing R. tangkokoensis n. sp. with other studies on R. amplexicaudatus based on one the body sizes, their FA length is about 82.22-86.76 mm (Payne and Francis, 1985) and FA length is about 77-87.2 mm (Suyanto, 2001). Apparently, the R. tangkokoensis n. sp. is nearly similar to R. amplexicaudatus. 

    Bergmans and Rosendaal (1988) measured 14 male R. amplexicaudatus from Sulawesi. Their FA length is about 81.55 (77.3-85.6 mm), ZB length is 22.3 (20.7-23.3 mm), GSL length is 36.85 (35.2-38.5 mm) and CBL length is 35.4 (34.2-37.2 mm). It is apparently R. amplexicaudatus have similarity with the R. tangkokoensis n. sp body size, yet it has bigger skull than R. tangkokoensis n. sp., but with R. spinalatus, it had similar FA, 85.1 mm.

    Maryanto and Yani (2003) measured the several characters of 12 males R. celebensis in Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense and determinded their length for these several characters: FA 75.81 mm (72.61-79.41 mm), GSL 39.46 mm (38.75-40.64 mm), ZB 23.59 mm (22.02-25.12 mm), CBL 37.57 mm (36.48-38.66 mm) and POW 7.69 (7.26-8.47 mm). They also measured the several characters from 4 males R. linduensis from Sulawesi. The measured ofthe length for these characters were: FA 76.73 mm (75.64-77.54 mm), GSL 39.38 mm (38.81-39.70 mm), ZB 24.08 mm (23.93-24.25 mm), CBL 37.47 mm (37.2-37.63 mm) and POW 7.07 mm (7.02-7.14 mm). In ferential, R. celebensis and R. linduensis have smaller body size and entirely larger skull, except the POW size.

    Rookmaker and Bergmans (1981) measuerd the body size of R. leschenaultii from Indonesia. R. tangkokoensis n. sp. has smaller body size and skull compared with R. leschenaultii. R. leschenaultii has FA length about 84.0-90.36 mm, GSL 40.3-43.6 mm and ZB 24.8-27.6 mm, respectively.

    Moreover, R. tangkokoensis n. sp. compared with R. egyptiacus (FA of 85-101.9 mm) (Grzimek, 2003; Kwiecinski and Griffin, 1999) and R. madagascar (FA of 119-140 mm) (Bergmans, 1997; Bush Warriors, 2013; Jenkins and Racey, 2008; McNab, 1969), it is apparent that R. tangkokoensis n. sp. be smaller than R. egyptiacus and R. madagascar.

    Reference
    Hanry Jefry Lengkong, Endang Arisoesilaningsih, Luchman Hakim and Sudarto. 2016. Morphological Variations and New Species Description of Genus Rousettus Bat from Gunung Duasudara Sanctuary, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences 2016, 16 (2): 90.101
    DOI: 10.3844/ojbsci.2016.90.101

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